Monthly Archives: December 2021

Program Lobby Joker123

Cara Pasang Program Lobby Joker123 dengna minimal deposit 20 ribu didalam situs terbaik didalam alexis4d. Game joker123 sebagai pangkalan game judi online yang paling populer dilapisan penggermar judi.

Didalamnya ada beberapa type permainan yaitu tembak ikan, slot game, dan casino online. Semua permainan yang sudah dipersiapkan oleh joker124 memiliki kekuatan yang menakjubkan. bisa dipikir seperti anda bermain tembak ikan di fasilitas permainan time zone.

Bermain slot game dan casino online anda akan rasakan seperti bermain di luar neger. Agar bisa cicipi semua fasilitas permainan yang sudah disebutkan baru saja anda harus pasang terlebih dahulu program lobby joker123.

Program joker123 ini dapat digunakan melalui handphone android atau ios. Karena ada teknologi modern terciptalah sebuah program yang bisa memudahkan anda sebagai penggemar judi online agar bisa bermain secara bebas.

Program ini bisa di-install secara gratis karenanya anda tidak mengeluarkan sedikit uang. Anda cukup menyiapkan paket internet untuk ambil program itu agar terpasang dengan lengkap aplikasinya. Jika anda belum karenanya dalam artikel ini akan dijelaskan

Bermain di joker123 betul-betul benar-benar meyenangkan, anda bisa tentukan permainan yang anda sukai. Bahkan keuntungan akan mudah didapatkan. Dengan deposit kecil anda bisa mendapat untung semakin banyak. Agar bisa pasang program joker123 pada android yang anda punya karenanya di sini akan disebutkan beberapa panduan untuk biisa pasang nya yaitu sebagai berikut :

Panduan Lengkap Pasang Program Lobby Joker123

Smartphone Android

Anda harus mematikan terlebih dahulu bila anda memiliki android dengan mekanisme operasi OS minimal dalam versi 4.4 dan untuk ios nya minimal ios operasi 5. Ini memiliki arah supaya lebih mudah pasang aplikasinya.

Browser dibuka

Selanjutnya anda segera dapat buka browser yang ada di smartphone anda bisa membuka google. Seterusnya langsung catat nama aplikasinya. Karenanya nantinya akan langsung keluar apa yang anda butuhkan.

Ambil program

Anda segera dapat ambil aplikasinya sama sesuai versi smartphone yang anda punya, seterusnya anda bisa menunggu sebentar. Tidak dapat banyak saat yang dibutuhkan hanya sesaat saja langsung terpasang di smartphone anda. Seterusnya jika anda sukses ambil bisa langsung install aplikasinya.

Langsung bermain

Jika aplikasinya sudah terpasang karenanya anda bisa langsung masuk dalam halaman utamannya dan tentukan permainan yang anda gemari. Anda bisa memiliki tembak ikan, casino, slot game. Tentukan permainan yang sama sesuai keterampilan anda.

Dengan demikian itu beberapa cara yang bisa dilaksanakan saat memasang program lobby joker123, karena ada program itu semakin memudahkan anda kerjakan permainan. Sampai bermain semakin luar biasa dan menantang. Agar bisa meraih kemenangan karenanya anda harus ketahui terlebih dahulu permainannya.

Setiap permainan harus dicapai dengan gampang dan nyaman tugas pemain adalah penuhi setiap persyaratan yang diberikan agen judi agar pemain bisa tersambung game dengan gampang dan nyaman.

Type game yang belakangan ini terkenal adalah permainan jackpot joker, agar pemain bisa turuti semua taruhan secara lancar silakan baca proses taruhan dimulai dari daftar sampai mengambil keuntungan dengan ketahui jackpot joker rules. Jika pemain sudah ketahui lajurnya, pasti proses taruhan seperti mengenal game penghasil jackpot terbesar semakin mudah dikerjakan.

Ketahui Proses Taruhan Di Jackpot Joker Rules

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Game joker gaming sebagai satu diantaranya pangkalan syah tempat di mana pemain bisa memasang taruhan slot, lve casino, poker dan permainan tembak ikan dengan betul-betul mudah. Di joker gaming Indonesia, pemain bisa tersambung game seperti slot sejauh 24 jam tanpa permasalahan, hal tersebut karena joker telah memiliki fasilitas yang paling lengkap.

Fasilitas dari joker gaming untuk beberapa gamenya adalah link alternatif, program, bonus memberi keuntungan, permainan terlengkap, dealer yang professional, akses customer service 24 jam, mekanisme pembayaran yang semakin macam, dan proses transaksi deposit dan withdraw paling terbuka.

Agar tidak kehilangan kesempatan permainkan game dari joker baca baik lajur registernya dan syarat pengisian deposit di jackpot joker rules. Register membutuhkan akun seperti akun bank tertentu, jika tidak ada bisa gunakan dana dan ovo dan untuk dana deposit baru dibayarkan setelah akun pemain diverifikasi dengan modal minimal 20 beberapa ribu kesempatan capai jackpot semakin tinggi.

Proses register di joker gaming jalan hanya 2 menit, sejauh data yang pemain anjuran adalah data pas pasti prosesnya semakin cepat. Setelah kerjakan register isilah deposit agar dapat langsung permainkan taruhan, selesai deposit langsung tentukan game joker yang akan dimainkan.

Untuk proses pemerolehan jackpotnya sendiri, setiap pemain yang berhasil mendapatkan poin paling tinggi setelah menaklukkan mesin pilihan mereka karenanya mempunyai hak mendapat jackpot seperti global jackpot dan jackpot progressive. Kisaran keuntungan jackpotnya raih 10x lipat dari modal yang telah dikeluarkan. Jika tentukan tipe baris karenanya 3 baris yang dipertunjukkan di monitor mesin harus berisi angka atau gambar yang sama.

Dapatkan Sekarang Di : http://www.deranacademy.online/blog/index.php?userid=869

Setelah berhasil mendapatkan keuntungan, pemain bisa langsung menjalankan bisnis withdraw melalalui bank lokal yang dipersiapkan seperti BCA, BNI, BRI, Mandiri, Cimb Niaga sampai OVO dan dana. Semua mekanisme pembayaran dapat mempermudah proses transaksi seperti withdraw apalagi dimuat secara terbuka, pemain bisa makin fokus menaklukkan mesin terfavorit jika melihat kualitas joker gaming dengan rules yang mudah dipahami.

Begitu keterangan singkat terkait permainan slot dan pengetahuan jackpot joker rules agar pemain bisa menghasilkan keuntungan makin banyak dengan pahami ketetapannya.

Paperslead reviews

Writing Services Offered

According to Paperslead reviews, the company can help with just about any academic assignment that exists. Seriously, the list of the services is so long that you’ll definitely find most of the writing assignments given in high school, college, or university. Moreover, you can also order such works as news releases, business plans, and eBooks from them.

 

Pricing and Discounts

The prices at Paperslead are much lower than the industry average. Here’s the full pricing table so you can have a better idea of what to expect from them.

 

As you can see, the prices at Paperslead.com are more than affordable (in fact, they’re much lower compared to other essay writing services), but we have to warn you right away: this is a red flag. Ridiculously low prices added with large discounts are a sign that the company’s writers are willing to do a lot of work for very cheap. Since this is something that professional writers don’t do, chances are that your assignment will be of low quality.

 

This is exactly what happened with your order, too (check out the next section for more details).

As for discounts, we’ve never seen anyone giving away so many of them! Here are some:

 

Write and share a review about them: 10 percent off

Like their Facebook page: 3 percent off (there are only 14 votes there, by the way, so not a lot of people are willing to do that)

 

And that’s not everything! Remember that reward shop we’ve talked about in the intro? By buying them from Paperslead, they give you points that you can exchange for smartphones, game consoles, watches, and other digital products.

Unbelievable.

How to write an essay?

The procedure of writing an essay itself is very similar to the process of creating any student paper. Here it is important to plan your actions correctly. To do this, it is enough to adhere to the following advanced writers reviews:

Choosing a topic.

At this stage, it is important to have an idea of what audience the essay is being written for: a teacher, a whole, a committee, a particular literary community or an employer. On the basis of that, you need to determine what features will be a priority: what exactly will be evaluated, how best to present the material, etc. If there is no list of topics and you have to choose the topic yourself, it is best to choose something that is close to your heart and in which you are knowledgeable.

It is equally important that the essay should reflect the author’s opinion, character and attitude towards the problem.

Beginning.

Having chosen a direction, determine what exactly you are going to research and defend, formulate the main idea of the essay. That’s where the starting point will come from. Here you’ll already be able to set a specific goal, define the tasks and methods, select the appropriate materials.

Don’t be afraid to state your thoughts in your own words. This is what will emphasize your individuality, humanity simplicity and “charisma”. It is important to write down all the thoughts that came into your head, not paying attention to the stylistics of grammar and other rules of the Russian language. Consider that you caught inspiration and try to write down all thoughts at once.

If it is difficult to write the introductory part, then start immediately with the main material – courageously defend the question posed, justify your point of view. Write the introduction and conclusion afterwards.

Editing the essay.

First, you need to make a certain plan and detail in it: what, where, when, and how you will cover. Then, the available manuscript should be checked for compliance with the made plan of grammar, censorship, and logicality. Don’t remove your emotions from the essay, just make it a little restrained and cultured.

Pay special attention to the design of the work. They are specific to each educational institution, publishing house.

https://topwriting.services/reviews/advancedwriters-review

Related Resources:

What is an essay?

Problems and possible difficulties in writing essays

How to write an essay?

What is an essay?

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Planning To University? Check This Out Report Now!

University is a superb time for teenagers to get them selves and also to really learn what they are made from. However, there is a lot to learn. Some students only definitely become cozy at university when it’s about time to depart! Don’t allow that to be you. Here are a few fantastic school ideas.

If you enter in your living space on the very first day of college or university, the greatest thing you can do is usually to fraternize along with your roommates. These will likely be the folks that you just invest the other year with so it is extremely smart to make friends using them instantly.

By using a small budget, chances are you may need a personal loan to pay for college or university. College or university can pay some terrific benefits down the road, so it’s preferable to go a lttle bit into financial debt for potential success.

Prevent learning for major school exams the night time before through taking in a number of caffeine or some other stimulants. Whilst these matters will keep you up and able to examine for longer, they could make you extremely tired every morning. Right after using compound stimulating elements for a while, you need a growing number of and which can be damaging to the overall mental and physical overall health.

Purchase school books a couple of days before the phrase begins. Invest 1 hour familiarizing your self with each of your respective publications. For those who have entry to your training course syllabus, check it out and discover where by inside the publication your school will likely be starting up. This way you may get a little jump start.

Why are you attending school? You should answer this inquiry yourself. Are you currently in school simply because it seems like the action to take? Have you been there to simply possess a school practical experience? Are you presently there to understand a unique topic. Cautiously analyze why it can be you happen to be joining college or university and prioritize.

Are you less than a great deal of tension for any a number of school you might be unsure you may successfully pass? You must speak with your scholastic counselor or kampus terbaik di lampung to your coach about credit history no credit. Most educational institutions will allow you to acquire 1 class where you will get credit but your level will not likely impact your GPA.

Since you now have these pointers, you should make sure to make use of them! Implement those to your daily life and you will definitely discover how valuable these are. University is a wonderful encounter,but only when you know several things. With a little luck this article has aided you figure out what you should know.

Will Smith helps out a teen with cancer on Will From Home

ensured a teen undergoing chemotherapy treatments would have an incredible in the season two premiere of his series Will From Home.

The 52-year-old actor was joined by his friend Jason Derulo, 31, to lighten up the mood of Aiden, a 14-year-old who was diagnosed with cancer in April.

While chatting virtually with him and his father Chuck, Will and Jason put on a dancing tutorial, before revealing a special Christmas present for Aiden. 

New seeason: Will Smith, 52, joined Jason Derulo, 31, to give a 14-year-old battling from cancer a special early Christmas gift on season two of Will From Home, released Monday on Snapchat

New seeason: Will Smith, 52, joined Jason Derulo, 31, to give a 14-year-old battling from cancer a special early Christmas gift on season two of Will From Home, released Monday on Snapchat

Aiden has had to undergo chemotherapy treatments throughout much of the pandemic, but his father isn’t able to be by his side during the treatments due to COVID-19 safety procedures.

However, he’s done his best to boost his son’s spirits by dancing for

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    In a clip from the series, which can be watched on the Snapchat app, Aiden shows off some of the dance moves he has learned for Will and Jason, who burst out into laughter and cheers when he nails it.

    It’s not all about who has the freshest moves, though, and Aiden is presented with a special Christmas gift from the Fresh Prince star. 

    Difficult time: Aiden was diagnosed with cancer in April and has been undergoing chemo treatments, but his father Chuck can't be with him due to COVID-19 safety procedures, so he dances from outside the room to raise his son's spirits

    Difficult time: Aiden was diagnosed with cancer in April and has been undergoing chemo treatments, but his father Chuck can’t be with him due to COVID-19 safety procedures, so he dances from outside the room to raise his son’s spirits

    Dancing up a storm: Will and Jason showed Aiden and Chuck some fresh dance moves, and they burst into cheers when Aiden showed them his skills

    Dancing up a storm: Will and Jason showed Aiden and Chuck some fresh dance moves, and they burst into cheers when Aiden showed them his skills

    He opens the box to discover that it’s a PlayStation 5.

    The highly coveted game console has been hard to find for gamers across the country as Christmas approaches, but it wasn’t on the market yet when the clip was filmed.

    ‘That’s the PS5 — you can’t even get those yet!’ Will shouts with excitement.

    On a screen behind him, Aiden raises the box above his head and lets out a roar.

    Along with the gifts just for Aiden, Will also made a $10,000 donation to the Cook Children’s Medical Center in Fort Worth, Texas.

    First in line: Will also got Aiden a special gift, which turned out to be a PlayStation 5

    First in line: Will also got Aiden a special gift, which turned out to be a PlayStation 5

    Scarce: The highly coveted video game console wasn't even available yet at the time the episode was filmed

    Scarce: The highly coveted video game console wasn’t even available yet at the time the episode was filmed

    Charity: Along with the gifts just for Aiden, Will also made a $10,000 donation to the Cook Children's Medical Center in Fort Worth, Texas

    Charity: Along with the gifts just for Aiden, Will also made a $10,000 donation to the Cook Children’s Medical Center in Fort Worth, Texas

    Each episode of the 10-episode social media series will find Will helping out those in need and honoring people who have made major sacrifices for the benefit of others.

    In addition to Derulo, the season features high-profile guest appearances from Alicia Keys, Lil Nas X, DJ Khaled and Ludacris, pts terbaik sumatera among others.

    Will’s new series follows his HBO Max reunion with his Fresh Prince Of Bel-Air costars, which was released in November on the streaming service.

    The often joyous meet-up also showed Will getting emotional when remembering the late James Avery, who played his Uncle Phil on the series, and during an occasionally tense chat with Janet Hubert, the original Aunt Vivian.

    Star power: Each episode finds will celebrated someone doing good deeds in real life, and this season features guest spots from Alicia Keys, Lil Nas X, DJ Khaled and Ludacris

    Star power: Each episode finds will celebrated someone doing good deeds in real life, and this season features guest spots from Alicia Keys, Lil Nas X, DJ Khaled and Ludacris

    Together again: Will's new series follows his HBO Max reunion with his Fresh Prince Of Bel-Air costars, which was released in November on the streaming service

    Together again: Will’s new series follows his HBO Max reunion with his Fresh Prince Of Bel-Air costars, which was released in November on the streaming service

    Gone too soon: Will getting emotional when remembering the late James Avery, who played his Uncle Phil on the series and died in 2013

    Gone too soon: Will getting emotional when remembering the late James Avery, who played his Uncle Phil on the series and died in 2013

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    Core Java Tutorial For Beginners Step By Step

    December 29, 2021   Uncategorized   1 Comment

    This Core Java Programming Language tutorial, divided into important easy to understand lessons, has been written specifically to help C and C++ programmers / developers learn programming quickly and without any difficulty. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with C / C++ programming language and can create some simple and small error free programs. The developers / programmers of other languages can also benefit from this tutorial. We have made every effort to make this useful for every Programming Langauge learner. Feel free to send your appreciation or criticism.

    This Online Tutorial for core Java for beginners is to learn basic concepts of Core d. Learning of it's concept has been divided in two section. First you will learn the fundamental of different topic in Core topic(Class , Interface…). In Next Section(Learn By Example)you will find many examples for different Core topic modules with running source code.

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    At javatpoint.com you will learn core and advanced topic online. We offer free corejava tutorial for beginners and for who has knowledege of this programing language and other programming language. Select a technology from the menu and you will find chapters and topics for terbaik sumatera that particular technology. We update javatpoint day by day and try to give new topics, chapters and technology. It is continuously updated to keep up with changes to the it's Platform and to incorporate feedback from our readers. Apart from fixing typos and errors, this update includes the following:

    This release of the tutorial corresponds to the JDK 7 release. The JDK 7 release introduces new JAR file manifest attributes that are used to defend Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) in Enhancing the Security of the JAR File. The Deploying an Applet and Deploying a Java Web Start Application sections describe how to include these attributes in the manifest. Additional tips for deploying RIAs have been added to Deployment Best Practices and Security in Rich Internet Applications. Information on time stamping the signature of a JAR file has been added to Signing JAR Files. Depending on the security level set in the Control Panel, RIAs that have an expired certificate might not be allowed to run. However, if the signature is time stamped and the time stamp shows that the certificate was valid when the RIA was signed, the RIA is allowed to run.

    They say that any thing can be programmed through this language. This huge and incredible programming language is used in all fields of Computer and is a part of many curriculums of many institutions. This site attempts to make the reader familiar with the programming language and helps you with hundreds of Projects. This is free online tutorial site with a huge number of programs for development. This site is evolving with more content,features,links and useful information for student and developers.

    Learn Online for beginners step by step and for beginners.

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    Arab Spring: the first smartphone revolution

    December 29, 2021   Uncategorized   1 Comment

    Egyptians use their mobile phones to record celebrations on February 12, 2011 in Cairo's Tahrir Square

    Egyptians use their mobile phones to record celebrations on February 12, 2011 in Cairo’s Tahrir Square

    Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge that helped topple ageing dictatorships a decade ago as their revolutionary spirit went viral.

    Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet via Facebook, YouTube and Twitter.

    Unfortunately for the pro-democracy movements, autocratic states have since caught up in the digital arms race, adding cyber surveillance, online censorship and troll armies to their arsenals.

    While the so-called Arab Spring offered a brief glimmer of hope for many, it ended with even more repressive regimes in most countries and devastating, ongoing wars in Syria, Libya and Yemen.

    "Facebook" is written with stones in Cairo's Tahrir Square on February 6, 2011, the epicenter of anti-regime protests

    “Facebook” is written with stones in Cairo’s Tahrir Square on February 6, 2011, the epicenter of anti-regime protests

    Nonetheless, terbaik sumatera say veterans of the period, the revolts mark a watershed moment when digital natives launched the era of “hashtag protests” from Occupy Wall Street to Hong Kong’s Umbrella protests and Black Lives Matter.

    Hyper-networked and largely leaderless, such protests flare up like flashmobs, making them harder for authorities to suppress, with grievances and demands decided not by committees but crowd-sourced online.

    “Blogs and social networks were not the trigger, but they supported the social movements,” said former Tunisian activist Sami Ben Gharbia, who ran a blog from exile and returned home amid the 2010 uprising.

    “They were a formidable weapon of communication.”

    The slogans of TV channel "Al-Jazeera" and social media giant "Facebook" are spray-painted at Cairo's Tahrir Square on February 7, 2011

    The slogans of TV channel “Al-Jazeera” and social media giant “Facebook” are spray-painted at Cairo’s Tahrir Square on February 7, 2011

    Today, say Arab cyber-activists, states have lost much of their control over what citizens can see, know and say, as evidenced by a later wave of protests that rocked Algeria, Sudan, Iraq and Lebanon in 2019 and 2020.

    While the heavy lid of state censorship has come down once more in many places, that free spirit has also brought change for the better, especially in the small Mediterranean country where it all started, Tunisia.

    – ‘Mass mobile-isation’ –

    A protester records with his mobile phone a demonstration in central Tunis on January 19, 2011

    A protester records with his mobile phone a demonstration in central Tunis on January 19, 2011

    The spark that set off the Arab Spring was the tragic suicide of Tunisian street vendor Mohammed Bouazizi, 26, who, having long been cheated and humiliated by state officials, set himself on fire.

    If his desperate act on December 17, 2010 expressed a real-world fury shared by millions, it was the virtual universe of online communications that spread the anger and hope for change like wildfire.

    Long simmering discontent among the less privileged was harnessed and multiplied by tech-savvy and often middle-class activists into a mass movement that would spread from Morocco to Iran.

    Bouazizi’s self-immolation was not caught on video — but the subsequent street protests were, along with the police violence that aimed to suppress them through fear but instead sparked more anger.

    Smartphones with their cameras became citizens’ weapons in the information war that allowed almost everyone to bear witness, and to organise, in a trend that has been dubbed “mass mobile-isation”.

    Clips were shared especially on Facebook, a medium outside the control of police states that had for decades tightly controlled print and broadcast media.

    “The role of Facebook was decisive,” recalled a blogger using the name Hamadi Kaloutcha, who had studied in Belgium and back in 2008 launched a Facebook forum called “I have a dream … A democratic Tunisia”.

    “Information could be published right under the regime’s nose,” he said.”Censorship was frozen. Either they censored everything that circulated, or they censored nothing.”

    Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge against ageing dictatorships

    Social media and smartphones briefly gave youthful Arab Spring protesters a technological edge against ageing dictatorships

    If previously dissent could only be whispered, some of the citizens’ fear and apathy lifted as online users saw their networks of family and friends speak out in the virtual space.

    Online platforms also formed a bridge with traditional global media, further accelerating the regional revolt.

    “International media like Al-Jazeera covered the uprising directly from Facebook,” Kaloutcha said.

    “We had no other platform to broadcast videos.”

    With head-spinning speed, Tunisia’s ruler of more than two decades, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, was gone in less than a month.

    “Thank you Facebook,” read one graffiti sprayed on Tunisian walls, long before the social media giant drew increasing fire for spreading not just calls for freedom but also fake news and hate speech.

    – ‘The camera is my weapon’ –

    An Egyptian demonstrator uses his mobile phone to take a picture of a burnt army tank during clashes in central Cairo on January 29, 2011

    An Egyptian demonstrator uses his mobile phone to take a picture of a burnt army tank during clashes in central Cairo on January 29, 2011

    The Tunisia victory would soon kick off a political earthquake in North Africa’s powerhouse Egypt.

    A key catalyst there to mobilise and organise protests was the Facebook campaign “We are all Khaled Said”, or “WAAKS”, which highlighted rampant police brutality and widespread corruption.

    Said, 28, died in police custody in June 2010.Photos of his battered corpse went viral online while authorities unconvincingly claimed he had choked on a bag of drugs.

    The WAAKS campaign brought hundreds to his funeral, followed by a series of silent protests.

    By early 2011, the Egyptian revolt had gathered steam, and the movement snowballed into anti-government protests on January 25, the National Police Day.

    WAAKS at the time encouraged citizen journalism with the video tutorial “The camera is my weapon”.

    Powerful online images surfaced including one of a man facing off with an armoured water cannon, echoing the iconic image of an unknown Chinese protester who in 1989 defied a column of tanks on Beijing’s Tiananmen Square.

    Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed a decade ago as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet

    Regimes across North Africa and the Middle East were caught flat-footed a decade ago as the fervour of the popular uprisings spread at the speed of the internet

    Volunteers translated Arabic tweets for the international media, even as state broadcasters railed against the “criminals” and “foreign enemies” it blamed for instigating the protests.

    Anonymous movement hackers showed solidarity by distributing advice on how to breach state firewalls and set up mirror websites.

    On January 28, 2011, the “Friday of Rage”, the government ordered an internet blackout and blocked cell phone services, but it was too late.

    A critical mass was already reached, and more youngsters left their screens to join the offline action on the streets.

    At the height of the protests, up to one million Egyptians were demanding Hosni Mubarak’s ouster.He finally agreed to step down on February 11, ending a rule of nearly three decades.

    – Virtual battlegrounds –

    If the phrase “Arab Spring” echoed the romantic hopes for freedom of the 1968 Prague Spring, it ended as tragically as that brief uprising crushed by Soviet tanks.

    An Egyptian holds up a sign praising Facebook in 2011 on Cairo's Tahrir Square, heeding a call by the opposition for a "march of a million" calling for the ouster of Hosni Mubarak

    An Egyptian holds up a sign praising Facebook in 2011 on Cairo’s Tahrir Square, heeding a call by the opposition for a “march of a million” calling for the ouster of Hosni Mubarak

    Arab states have quickly caught up with their own cyber tools, weaponising social media and cracking down hard on online activists.

    “The authorities reacted quickly to control this strategic space,” said former Moroccan activist Nizar Bennamate, then with the February 20th protest movement.

    Activists, he said, became “victims of defamation, insults and threats on social networks and some online media”.

    A decade later, Amnesty International charged, Morocco has used smartphone hacking software to spy on journalist and rights activist Omar Radi, before detaining him on rape and espionage charges.

    A computer screen shows tweets posted by users on January 14, 2011 about the situation in Tunisia

    A computer screen shows tweets posted by users on January 14, 2011 about the situation in Tunisia

    In Egypt, President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi’s government has crushed almost all dissent, blocked hundreds of websites and jailed social media users, including even teenage influencers on the short video app TikTok.

    Takeovers of publishing and TV companies by regime insiders has “led to the death of pluralism in the media landscape,” said Sabrina Bennoui of Reporters Without Borders (RSF).

    “We called this movement the ‘Sisification’ of the media.”

    Gulf countries, meanwhile, have used the Covid-19 pandemic “as a pretext to continue pre-existing patterns of suppressing the right to freedom of expression,” Amnesty has charged.

    As conflicts are fought increasingly in the virtual space, the standoff between a Saudi-led group of Gulf countries and Qatar has seen the use of bot armies to attack each other.

    In Libya’s war, fought with drones and mercenaries, UN mediators recently urged both sides not just to lay down their weapons but also to refrain from the use of online “hate speech and incitement to violence”.

    An image from a propaganda video released on March 17, 2014 by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group's al-Furqan Media

    An image from a propaganda video released on March 17, 2014 by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group’s al-Furqan Media

    Social media has also been used to great effect by non-state actors such as the Islamic State jihadist group, which employed it as a powerful weapon for propaganda and recruitment.

    “The tools that catalysed the Arab Spring, we’ve learned, are only as good or as bad as those who use them,” said a commentary in Wired magazine.

    “And as it turns out, bad people are also very good at social media.”

    – ‘Dream come true’ –

    Today, as most Arab countries linger near the murky bottom of RSF’s Global Press Freedom Index, the one place that offers a glimmer of hope is Tunisia, the tiny country where it all started.

    Though battered by poverty and now the pandemic, it boasts a long secular tradition, a fragile democracy and relative freedom of speech in a region dominated by totalitarian regimes.

    Tunisian journalist Sami Ben Gharbia, once a refugee who  ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands, at the office of the now fully fledged Nawaat media outlet

    Tunisian journalist Sami Ben Gharbia, once a refugee who ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands, at the office of the now fully fledged Nawaat media outlet

    Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet that runs both opinion and investigative pieces, with a website and a printed magazine.

    It has produced several documentaries on environmental and social justice issues and interviewed former prime minister Elyes Fakhfakh earlier this year.

    Gharbia, once a refugee who had fled the Ben Ali regime and ran the Nawaat blog from the Netherlands from 2004 to 2011, is now proud to be a force in the country’s media landscape.

    “There was a big debate after the fall of Ben Ali,” he said.”Had we reached our goal, should we continue and in what form?

    Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet

    Nawaat, once one of the major dissident blogs subject to state censorship, is now a fully fledged media outlet

    “After a transition, in 2013, we decided to professionalise the editorial staff, to produce independent quality information, which is still lacking today in Tunisia”.

    One recent day he was running a lively editorial meeting during which journalists discussed which political parties to investigate next.

    “Having offices and a team of journalists working freely in the field was a dream 10 years ago,” he said.

    “That dream has come true.”

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